As per National Sample Survey Office (NSSO), survey conducted during 2011-12 on Household Consumer Expenditure, percentages of monthly per capita expenditure (MPCE) on education to the household MPCE is 3.5 % and 6.9% for rural and urban India respectively.
The Government has undertaken several regulatory measures to keep the cost of higher education affordable. The fee in government universities and colleges is nominal. In order to regulate the fees in Professional / Technical institutions, AICTE has set up Justice Srikishna Committee which recommended the upper caps of fees in these institutions.
This report has been shared with all the State Governments. State Governments have set up their own fee committees which regulate fee in professional and technical institutions.
As per the UGC (Institutions Deemed to be Universities) Regulations 2016, the Deemed to be universities have to mandatorily publish details of fee structure in their prospectus. Also, capitation fee is not allowed in these institutions.
At school level, in some States, such regulatory mechanism exists through administrative guidelines and/or legislations. Private schools affiliated with the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) are regulated in such matters by CBSE guidelines.