As per the Global Gender Gap Report 2016 by World Economic Forum, India ranks at 87th in respect of Global Gender Gap Index (GGI) among 144 countries of the World.
According to the Human Development Report 2015 brought out by UNDP, India ranked 130 on the Gender Inequality Index among 155 countries.
As per the GGR, India has climbed 21 spots to rank 87th in 2016, which is an improvement from being ranked at 108th in 2015. The improvement in ranking has been driven largely by major improvements in education.
On education attainment India has moved up from 125th rank in 2015 to 113th in 2016.
On economic participation and opportunity too, India has moved up to 136th rank in 2016, from 139th in 2015.
On health and survival, it has moved up by one rank over last year to rank 142nd.
India ranks 9th on political empowerment in the world, which is a major achievement.
Initiatives by Government of India in this regard:
Government of India has taken several measures, interventions and strengthened Institutional mechanism towards the empowerment of women and for elimination of gender gap and inequality. ICDS is being implemented to address the nutritional needs of children and pregnant and lactating women, Matritva Sahyog Yojana for pregnant and lactating women to improve their health and nutrition status. Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), implemented with the objective of reducing Maternal and Infant Mortality. Sabla scheme aims at the empowerment of adolescent girls in the age group of 11-18 years, Sarva Siksha Abhiyan (SSA) and Rashtriya Madhayamik Siksha Abhiyan (RMSA) schemes are being implemented to universalize elementary and secondary education respectively, having a strong focus on improving enrolment and retention of girls. Support to Training & Employment programme for Women (STEP) scheme aims to ensure sustainable employment and income generation for marginalized and asset-less rural and urban women. The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGA) helps in economic and social empowerment of women.
Government of India has given utmost priority to end the gender based inequities, reducing disparity between men and women, improving socio-economic status of women and increasing their participation in various fields. The Ministry of Women and Child Development is implementing the following schemes to reduce gender gap and promote gender sensitization; i)The Beti Bachao Beti Padhao has been launched to address the issue of declining Child Sex Ratio on a life cycle continuum basis. ii) One Stop Centres integrated with Women Helpline (181) have been established across the country to provide integrated support and assistance to women affected by violence, iii) Engagement of Mahila Police Volunteers has been initiated to act as a link between police and public.
Several steps and initiatives have also been taken up in school education system such as National Curriculum Framework (NCF) 2005 and flagship programme like Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) and the subsequent Right to Education Act (RTE). Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalayas (KGBVs) have been opened in Educationally Backward Blocks (EBBs). Gender Sensitisation is also done through Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) which includes Gender sensitization Module- part of In-service training, Construction for toilet for girls, Construction of residential quarters for female teachers and Curriculum Reforms.