National Disaster Management Plan Released

To make the country disaster-resilient and reduce loss of lives, Prime Minister Narendra Modi released a National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP). This is the first ever national plan prepared in the country.

The Disaster Management Act 2005 uses the following definition for disaster:

“Disaster” means a catastrophe, mishap, calamity or grave occurrence in any area, arising from natural or manmade causes, or by accident or negligence which results in substantial loss of life or human suffering or damage to, and destruction of, property, or damage to, or degradation of, environment, and is of such a nature or magnitude as to be beyond the coping capacity of the community of the affected area.”

The National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP) provides a framework and direction to the government agencies for all phases of disaster management cycle.

The NDMP is a “dynamic document” in the sense that it will be periodically improved keeping up with the emerging global best practices and knowledge base in disaster management. It is in accordance with the provisions of the Disaster Management Act, 2005, the guidance given in the National Policy on Disaster Management, 2009 (NPDM), and the established national practices.

The NDMP recognizes the need to minimize, if not eliminate, any ambiguity in the responsibility framework. It, therefore, specifies who is responsible for what at different stages of managing disasters.

disaster managementThe NDMP is envisaged as ready for activation at all times in response to an emergency in any part of the country. It is designed in such a way that it can be implemented as needed on a flexible and scalable manner in all phases of disaster management: a) mitigation (prevention and risk reduction), b) preparedness, c) response and d) recovery (immediate restoration to build-back better).

The NDMP is consistent with the approaches promoted globally by the United Nations, in particular the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030. It is a non-binding agreement, which the signatory nations will attempt to comply with on a voluntary basis.

The Framework was adopted by member-states on March 18, 2015, at the third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in Sendai, Japan.

The Sendai Framework is a 15-year, voluntary, non-binding agreement which recognizes that the State has the primary role to reduce disaster risk but that responsibility should be shared with other stakeholders including local government, the private sector and other stakeholders.

It aims for the following outcome: The substantial reduction of disaster risk and losses in lives, livelihoods and health and in the economic, physical, social, cultural and environmental assets of persons, businesses, communities and countries.

India will make all efforts to contribute to the realization of the global targets by improving the entire disaster management cycle in India by following the recommendations in the Sendai Framework and by adopting globally accepted best practices. The four priorities for action under the Sendai Framework are:
1. Understanding disaster risk
2. Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk
3. Investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience
4. Enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response and to “Build Back Better” in
recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction

The NDMP incorporates substantively the approach enunciated in the Sendai Framework and will help the country to meet the goals set in the framework.

By 2030, the Sendai Framework aims to achieve substantial reduction of disaster risk and losses in lives, livelihoods, and health and in the economic, physical, social, cultural, and environmental assets of persons, businesses, communities, and countries.

The plan includes measures that will be implemented over the short, medium, and long-term more or less over the time horizon of the Sendai Framework ending in 2030.


Make India disaster resilient, achieve substantial disaster risk reduction, and significantly decrease the losses of life, livelihoods, and assets – economic, physical, social, cultural, and environmental – by maximizing the ability to cope with disasters at all levels of administration as well as among communities.


Along with the mandate given in the DM Act 2005 and the NPDM 2009, the national plan has
incorporated the national commitment towards the Sendai Framework. Accordingly, the broad objectives of the NDMP are:

1) Improve the understanding of disaster risk, hazards, and vulnerabilities
2) Strengthen disaster risk governance at all levels from local to centre
3) Invest in disaster risk reduction for resilience through structural, non-structural and financial measures, as well as comprehensive capacity development
4) Enhance disaster preparedness for effective response
5) Promote “Build Back Better” in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction
6) Prevent disasters and achieve substantial reduction of disaster risk and losses in lives, livelihoods, health, and assets (economic, physical, social, cultural and environmental)
7) Increase resilience and prevent the emergence of new disaster risks and reduce the existing risks
8) Promote the implementation of integrated and inclusive economic, structural, legal, social, health, cultural, educational, environmental, technological, political and institutional
measures to prevent and reduce hazard exposure and vulnerabilities to disaster
9) Empower both local authorities and communities as partners to reduce and manage disaster risks
10) Strengthen scientific and technical capabilities in all aspects of disaster management
11) Capacity development at all levels to effectively respond to multiple hazards and for
community-based disaster management
12) Provide clarity on roles and responsibilities of various Ministries and Departments involved in different aspects of disaster management
13) Promote the culture of disaster risk prevention and mitigation at all levels
14) Facilitate the mainstreaming of disaster management concerns into the developmental
planning and processes


India, due to its, physiographic and climatic conditions is one of the most disaster prone areas of the world. Vulnerability to disasters/emergencies of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) origin also exists. Heightened vulnerabilities to disaster risks can be related to increasing population, urbanisation, industrialisation, development within high-risk zones, environmental degradation, and climate change.

The Disaster Management Act of 2005 and Disaster Management Policy of 2009 consider disasters to be natural or human-induced for defining the roles and responsibilities. The human-induced category includes CBRN disasters. Besides, with the natural factors discussed earlier, various human-induced activities are also responsible for accelerated impact and increase in frequency of disasters in the country.

The NDMP covers disaster management cycle for all types of hazards faced in India –
both natural and human-induced.

The Indian plan, designed to be scalable at all levels, will cover disaster prevention, mitigation, response and recovery.

It provides for horizontal and vertical integration among all the agencies and departments of the government, the statement read.

The plan has a regional approach, which will be beneficial not only for disaster management but also for development planning.