Water Insecurity

As per the National Commission on Integrated Water Resources Development (NCIWRD) Report-1999, water requirement of the country for High Demand scenario and Low Demand scenario for the year 2050 are 1,180 billion cubic metres (BCM) and 973 BCM respectively. As per study titled “Reassessment of Water Availability in India using Space Inputs, 2019” conducted by Central Water Commission in collaboration with National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC), the average annual water resources availability in the country is assessed at 1,999.20 BCM. It is estimated that owing to topographic, hydrological and other constraints, the utilizable water quantity is 1,126 BCM. 

(b) to (d) Water being a State subject, steps for augmentation, conservation and efficient management of water resources are primarily undertaken by the respective State Governments. In order to supplement the efforts of the State Governments, Union Government provides technical and financial assistance to them through various schemes and programmes.

The Government of India formulated a National Perspective Plan (NPP) of interlinking of rivers for transferring water from surplus basins to deficit basins/areas in 1980. National Water Development Agency (NWDA) has identified 30 links (16 under Peninsular Component and 14 under Himalayan Component) for preparation of Feasibility Reports/ Detailed Project Reports under Inter-linking of Rivers Project. However, river interlinking projects are largely dependent on consensus on water sharing between participating States.

National Aquifer Mapping and Management program (NAQUIM) is being implemented by the Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) as part of Ground Water Management and Regulation (GWM&R) Scheme, a central sector scheme. NAQUIM envisages mapping of aquifers (water bearing formations), their characterization and development of Aquifer Management Plans to facilitate sustainable management of groundwater resources in the country. NAQUIM outputs are shared with States/UTs for suitable interventions.


Government of India is also implementing Atal Bhujal Yojana, a central sector scheme, in 8,774 gram panchayats of 81 districts of seven States namely Haryana, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. The focus of the scheme is on community participation and demand side intervention for sustainable ground water management in identified water stressed areas.

Government of India, in partnership with States, is implementing Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM) to make provision of potable tap water supply to every rural household of the country at the service level of 55 litre per capita per day by 2024. For ensuring tap water supply in drought-prone and water-scarce areas with inadequate rainfall or dependable ground water sources, provisions have been made under JJM for bulk water transfer from long distances and regional water supply schemes. In addition, provisions have been made for source recharging, viz. dedicated bore well recharge structures, rain water recharge, rejuvenation of existing water bodies, etc., in convergence with other schemes such as MGNREGS, Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP), 15th Finance Commission tied grants to RLBs/ PRIs, State schemes, CSR funds, etc.

Government of India has launched AMRUT 2.0 on 1st October, 2021 for a period of 5 years (FY 2021- 22 to 2025-26), with the objective of providing universal coverage of water supply through functional household tap connections in all statutory towns in the country. AMRUT 2.0 focuses on making specified cities water secure through recycle/ reuse of treated sewage, rejuvenation of water bodies and water conservation.

Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY) was launched during the year 2015-16, with an aim to enhance physical access of water on farm and for expanding cultivable area under assured irrigation, improve on-farm water use efficiency, introducing sustainable water conservation practices, etc. During 2016-17, ninety-nine (99) on-going major/ medium irrigation projects in the country having balance estimated cost of Rs.77,595 crore under PMKSY-Accelerated Irrigation Benefifits Programme (AIBP) have been prioritised, in consultation with States, for completion in phases. The extension of PMKSY for the period 2021-22 to 2025-26 has been approved by Government of India, with an overall outlay of Rs. 93,068.56 crore.

The Command Area Development & Water Management (CADWM) Programme has been brought under Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY) – Har Khet Ko Pani from 2015-16 onwards. The main objective of taking up CAD works is to enhance utilization of irrigation potential created, and improve agriculture production on a sustainable basis through Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM).

Department of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare is implementing “Per Drop More Crop” component of Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY) which is operational from 2015-16 in the India. The PMKSY- “Per Drop More Crop” mainly focuses on water use efficiency at farm level through micro irrigation (drip and sprinkler irrigation system).

 ‘Sahi Fasal’ campaign was launched by National Water Mission (NWM) on 14.11.2019 to nudge farmers in the water stressed areas to grow crops which use water very efficiently, are economically remunerative, are healthy and nutritious, suited to the agro-climatic-hydro characteristics of the area, and are environment friendly.

Hon’ble Prime Minister launched the “Jal Shakti Abhiyan: Catch the Rain” (JSA:CTR) with the theme “Catch the Rain – Where it Falls When it Falls” on 22nd March 2021, the World Water Day, to cover all the blocks of all districts (rural as well as urban areas) across the country during 22nd March, 2021 to 30th November, 2021 – the pre-monsoon and monsoon period. JSA:CTR campaign had five focused interventions- (1) rainwater harvesting & water conservation (2) enumerating, geo-tagging & making inventory of all water bodies; preparation of scientific plans for water conservation (3) Setting up Jal Shakti Kendras in all districts (4) intensive afforestation and (5) awareness generation.

Central Water Commission (CWC) promotes  Water Use Efficiency Studies (WUE) and Performance Evaluation Studies (PES) of MMI projects in the States.  CWC also promotes the water conservation and water management.

This Information was given by the Minister of State for Jal Shakti Shri Bishweswar Tudu in a written      reply in Lok Sabha today.



    Source PIB