The neutrino and its antimatter cousin, the antineutrino, are the tiniest subatomic particles known to science. These particles are byproducts of nuclear reactions within stars (including our sun), supernovae, black holes and human-made nuclear reactors.
They also result from radioactive decay processes deep within the Earth, where radioactive heat and the heat left over from the planet’s formation fuels plate tectonics, volcanoes and Earth’s magnetic field.
Now, a team of geologists and physicists has generated the world’s first global map of antineutrino emissions. The map provides an important baseline image of the energy budget of Earth’s interior and could help scientists monitor new and existing human-made sources of radiation.
A neutrino is an electrically neutral elementary particle with half-integer spin. The neutrino (meaning “little neutral one” in Italian) is denoted by the Greek letter ν (nu). All evidence suggests that neutrinos have mass but that their masses are tiny, even compared to other subatomic particles. Neutrinos can be created in several ways, including in certain types of radioactive decay, in nuclear reactions such as those that take place in the Sun, in nuclear reactors, when cosmic rays hit atoms and in supernovas. The majority of neutrinos in the vicinity of the earth are from nuclear reactions in the Sun.
Neutrinos are notoriously difficult to study; their tiny size and lack of electrical charge enables them to pass straight through matter without reacting. At any given moment, trillions of neutrinos are passing through every structure and living thing on Earth. Luckily, antineutrinos are slightly easier to detect, through a process known as inverse beta decay. Spotting these reactions requires a huge detector the size of a small office building, housed about a mile underground to shield it from cosmic rays that could yield false positive results.
In the current study, the team analyzed data collected from two such detectors–one in Italy and one in Japan–to generate a picture of antineutrino emissions from natural sources deep within Earth. They combined this with data collected by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on more than 400 operational nuclear reactors. In total, antineutrinos from these human-made sources accounted for less than 1 percent of the total detected.
The team plans to make periodic updates to the global antineutrino map in the future, with the help of improved models of Earth’s interior and enhanced antineutrino detection technology. Updates to the map will also reflect the construction and decommission of nuclear reactors as appropriate. All told, the maps will provide an up-to-date picture of Earth’s overall radioactivity.
The interior of Earth is quite difficult to see, even with modern technology. This map would prove particularly useful for future studies of processes within the lower crust and mantle. This project will allow us to access basic information about the planet’s fuel budget across geologic time scales, and might yet reveal new and exciting details on the structure of the deep Earth.
Geo-neutrino measurements are essential in characterising the Earth’s energy across geologic time and in improving our understanding of planetary formation processes in the early solar nebula.