National Malaria Elimination Program

IAS Prelims 2023

The Government of India has launched National Framework for Malaria Elimination 2016-2030 in Feb 2016 targeting elimination of malaria by 2030.

The details are as under:

1. The strategies to eliminate malaria in phases are as under:

i) Interruption of transmission of malaria and zero indigenous cases and deaths due to malaria to be achieved in low endemic states/UTs by 2020,

ii) In moderately endemic states/UTs by 2022 and

iii) In high endemic states/UTs by 2027.

2. The malaria elimination strategies would be implemented through the States/UTs under the overarching umbrella of National Health Mission (NHM).

3. Case based surveillance, detection and complete treatment through outreach diagnostic and treatment services.

4. Integrated Vector Management by using Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs), chemical and bio-larvicides, larvivorous fishes, and source reduction.

5. Private sector involvement and inter-sectoral collaboration.

Following the success of National Malaria Control Programmme (launched in 1953), the program was renamed as National Malaria Eradication Programme (NMEP) in 1958.

The incidence of malaria dropped to 0.1 million cases and zero deaths in 1965.

However, afterwards the resurgence of malaria resulted in escalation of cases to 6.4 million cases in 1976, which was attributed to the following reasons:

1. Precipitation of vector resistance to DDT

2. Operational and logistic reasons

However, there has been a declining trend of malaria cases and deaths in the country since 2000.