- The policy directions of the “Heath for All” declaration became the stated policy of Government of India with adoption of the National Health Policy Statement of 1983.
- Further, the National Health Policy of 2002 and the Report of the Macro-Economic Commission on Health and Development (2005) emphasized the need to increase the total public health expenditure from 2% to 3% of the GDP.
- The National Health Mission (NHM) seeks to improve the health status of the urban population particularly urban poor and other vulnerable sections by facilitating their access to quality primary health care.
- NHM covers all state capitals, district headquarters and other cities/towns with a population of 50,000 and above (as per census 2011) in a phased manner.
- Cities and towns with population below 50,000 are to be covered under
MAJOR INITIAIVES UNDER NATIONAL RURAL HEALTH MISSION (NRHM)
- ASHA: More tlian 94 lakh community health volunteers called Accredited Social Health Activists have been engaged under the mission. ASHA is the first port of call for any health related demands of deprived sections of the population, especially women and children in rural areas.
- ROGI KALYAN SAMITI / HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT SOCIETY: This committee is a registered society whose members act as trustees to manage the affairs of the hospital and are responsible for upkeep of the facilities and ensure provision of better facilities to the patients in the hospital.
- VILLAGE HEALTH SANITATION AND NUTRITION COMMITTEE: It is an important tool of community empowerment and participation at the grassroots level.
- Several National Health Programmes such as the National Vector Borne Diseases Control, Leprosy Eradication, TB Control, Blindness Control and Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Programmes have come under the umbrella of National Rural Health Mission.
- Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) is one of the important indicators of the quality of health services in the country.
- India at that time contributed to 27% of the global maternal deaths.
- In the year 2010 global MMR was 210. Against this, MMR in India has declined to 178 per hundred thousand live births in 2011 as per latest estimates.
- India now contributes to only 16% of the global maternal deaths.
- Globally, there has been a 47% decline between the years 1990 and 2010. Compared to this, India has registered a decline of 70% between 1990 and 2011.
- The highest rates of declines are evident from the years 2004-06.
- Currently, as many as 66 crore women are reported to deliver in public health institutions.
- Building on the phenomenal progress of the JSY scheme, Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram (JSSK) launched in 2011 provides service guarantees in the form of entitlements to pregnant women, sick newborns and infants for free delivery including caesarean section and free treatment in public health institutions.
- This includes free to and from transport between home and institution, diet, diagnostics, drugs, other consumables and blood transfusion, if required.
- However, still an estimated 47,000 mothers continue to die every year due to causes related to pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period.
NATIONAL TOBACCO CONTROL PROGRAMME (NTCP)
- As per report of the Tobacco Control in India (2004), more than 8 lakh people die due to tobacco consumption every year in India.
- India is the second largest consumer (after China) of tobacco products in the world.
- As per Survey, conducted in the age group of 15 years and above, 8% men and 20.3% women consume tobacco in some form or the other, translating to more than 27.5 crores in absolute numbers.
- Survey indicated that nearly 15% children in the age group of 13- 15 years are consuming tobacco in some form.
- There is also evidence that each day 5,500 new youth are getting addicted to tobacco use.
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