Chapter on Welfare


  • TRIFED was set up in 1987 as a national level apex body under the Multi State Cooperative Societies Act, 1984.
  • Under its revised mandate TRIFED has stopped bulk procurement in Minor Forest Produce (MFP) and surplus Agricultural Produce (SAP) from Tribals.
  • This procurement is now done by the State-level Tribal Cooperatives Societies/Federations.
  • TRIFED now functions as a ‘market developer’ for tribal products and as ‘service provider’ to its member federations.
  • TRIFED is now engaged in the marketing development of tribal products (natural and organic products, handicrafts, ratification etc.) through its own shops (TRIBES India) and shops selling its products on consignment basis.


  • The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006 seeks to recognize and vest the forest rights and occupation in forest land in forest dwelling Scheduled Tribes who have been residing in such forests for generations.
  • The Act has been notified for operation with effect from 31st December 2007.
  • The Rules envisage the constitution of various Committees under the Act, viz, the Sub Divisional Level Committee; District Level Committee and the State Level Monitoring Committee, by the State Governments.
  • All the States have been requested to nominate the nodal officer for implementing the provisions of the Act.
  • As per the Act, the responsibility for recognition and vesting of forest rights and distribution of land rights resets with the State Government, as per the Rules notified for implementation of the Act.


  • The Second Backward Classes Commission (commonly known as Mandal Commission), constituted under Article 340, submitted its Report in 1980.
  • In the light of this report, the Government of India had provided 27% reservation in Central Government posts for persons belonging to the Socially and Economically Backward Classes [also referred to as “Other Backward Classes” or OBCs].
  • Several writ petitions were filed in the Supreme Court challenging this Order.
  • These were disposed of by the Supreme Court in 1992, commonly known as the judgement in the Indra Sawhney case.
  • In this judgement, the Court upheld 27% reservation for OBCs in civil posts and services under the Union of India, subject to exclusion of the “Creamy Layer“.
  • With the amendment of Article 15 of the Constitution in January, 2006 and the enactment of the Central Educational Institutions (Reservation in Admissions) Act in January, 2007, listing of OBCs has become relevant for admission in Central Educational Institutions also.
  • Under this Act, OBC students are entitled to 27% reservation in Central Educational Institutions in a phased manner, over a period of three years commencing from the academic session 2008-09.
  • The National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC) was set up in August, 1993 as per provisions of the National Commission for Backward Classes Act 1993.